Facts about Greece

 Finacial development and industry, shipping, transport, public services and politics.

facts abou greece

Below are the most accurate facts about Greece and the Greek islands, the Greek people and their culture.

Among those facts are interesting information about today’s life in Greece , religion, finacial development and industry Greek shipping , transport etc..

Introducing many other topics such as Greek education, dowry and marriage.  Quality of life and economic development, issues concerning foreigners who want to move to GreecGreece,  a state of southern Europe, located on the southern Balkan Peninsula and its official name is Hellenic Republic. It is a presidential parliamentary republic and its capital is the city of Athens.

The modern Republic of Greece was born with the end of the military regime in 24th of July 1974.

The Republic of Greece has its roots in the Greek war of independence fought in the 19th century against the Ottoman Empire, which gave birth to the First Hellenic Republic.

With the London Convention of 1832 the birth of the Kingdom of Greece was established, overthrown for the first time in 1924 with the birth of the Second Hellenic Republic, and a second time in 1967 with the coup d’état who gave birth to the Dictatorship of the Colonels.

Greece is one of the 51 states that joined the UNO in 1945

Greece is one of the 51 states that joined the United Nations Organization in 1945 and since 1981 is part of the European Economic Community and then of the European Union and adopted the Euro with most of the other countries in 2002.

Greece is also a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 1952, of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since 1961, and a founding member of the Black Sea Economic Co-operation Organization (BSEC) and the European Space Agency (ESA).
Major cities include the capital, Athens,Thessaloniki, Patras, and Heraklion.

Greece occupies the 11th place among the countries with the longest coastline.

With a coastline of 13,676 kilometers, mainly because of the number of greek islands estimated at 2,500, with almost 200 being inhabited.

Greece has the 97th place in the ranking of the countries of the world according to their area.

Greece has 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites

Greece has a rich historical heritage, which is reflected in the 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites located on its territory. During its history it has interacted culturally mainly with peoples of the Middle East and Europe.

Ancient Greece is the cornerstone of world civilization

The ancient Greeks created the cornerstone of world civilization since democracy and philosophy, the Olympic Games, drama, tragedy and comedy were born in ancient Greece.
From the 8th century BC, the Greeks organized themselves into independent city-states, known as cities, which covered the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea.

Philip II of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the 4th century BC, with his son Alexander III quickly conquering much of the ancient world, spreading Greek culture and science from the eastern Mediterranean to India.

Greece was annexed by Rome in the 2nd century BC, making it an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, where the Greek language and culture dominated.

The Christianization of its inhabitants began already in the 1st and was completed in the 6th century AD. The Greek Orthodox Church helped shape the modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. After 1204, Latin possessions were created on islands and coastal areas of the Greek area. In the mid-15th century the Ottoman Turks conquered almost the entire region, which remained under Ottoman rule for about four centuries.

After the emergence of the Greek national movement, in 1821 a Greek revolution broke out against the Ottoman Empire with the aim of establishing a national state, the independence of which was recognized in 1830.

In the following century, the Kingdom of Greece expanded territorially, mainly with the Balkan Wars, until the failure of the Asia Minor campaign in 1922.

In the following decades, Greece led a turbulent political life and was followed by a long period of autocratic rule, during which a royal dictatorship was imposed, the country was under military occupation during World War II, experienced a civil war war and seven years of military dictatorship. From the post-colonization of 1974-75 until today, the state’s polity is the presiding parliamentary democracy.

Greece in the European Union

Greece became a member of the European Union (then European Communities) in 1981, the Schengen Zone in 2000 and the Eurozone in 2001. It is a member of NATO since 1952 and a founding member of the UN since 1945, the OECD, the WTO, the OSCE and the International Organization of Francophonie.

The Greek actress and politician Melina Mercury pioneered the completion of the European union,  she was inspired by passion in everything she did, from her appearances in the theatre and on the big screen in the first stage of her life, to her struggle against the fascist junta who came to power in Greece in 1967 and her campaign, as a politician, for the protection and promotion of culture.

Greece is is the largest economy in the Balkans

Greece’s unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power. It is the largest economy in the Balkans and a major investor in the region. It is considered a developed country with a high per capita income and a very high human development index. It was ranked as the 32nd best country in terms of quality of life in the world for 2019.

Greek geography facts

Greece is a country in southeastern Europe at the southernmost tip of the Balkan peninsula. Its official name is the Hellenic Republic, while the country’s population amounts to almost 10,5 million inhabitants. Its capital and largest city is Athens and second largest city is Thessaloniki.

It is bordered to the northwest by Albania, to the north by North Macedonia and Bulgaria, to the northeast and east (by sea) by Turkey, and also by sea to the west by Italy, to the south by Libya and to the southeast by Cyprus and Egypt.

It has coasts in the Eastern Mediterranean and is washed by the Aegean Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the west and the Libyan Sea to the south.

Greece consists of a large continental section, the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula, which continues to the Peloponnese with the Isthmus of Corinth, which since 1893 has now had the Canal of the same name.

The country is surrounded by the Ionian, Aegean and Libyan seas. The Aegean rains numerous islands, among them Evia, Lesvos and the island complexes of the Cyclades and the Dodecanese as well as the western coast of Rhodes, while to the south lies Crete, the largest island of Greece and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean.

South of Crete is Gavdos, the southernmost point of Greece and Europe. The main Ionian islands are Corfu, Kefalonia, Lefkada and Zakynthos. Kastellorizo, together with the adjacent islets, is located east of Rhodes, in the Southeast Mediterranean, and is the easternmost Greek territory.

Greece has a coastline of 13,676 km, which is considered extremely long, and is due to the rich horizontal territorial dismemberment and strong relief of the region, as well as the multitude of innumerable islands, which are more than 2,500 and are mainly the result of the conflict of the African tectonic plate with the European one.

It has a border length approaching 1,228 kilometers. The largest plain is that of Giannitsa in Central Macedonia (2,250 sq.m.) followed by Larissa in Thessaly (1,850 sq.m.). Geographically, Greece is divided into 9 departments, which are divided into 51 prefectures.

Greek climate facts

Greece is characterized by the Mediterranean type ofclimate and has mild wet winters and hot dry summers. The climate of the country can be divided into four main categories:

Humid Mediterranean (western Greece, western Peloponnese, lowlands and semi-mountains of Epirus).
Dry Mediterranean (Cyclades, coastal Crete, Dodecanese, eastern Peloponnese, Attica, lowland areas of Eastern Mainland).
Continental (western Macedonia, interior highlands of mainland Greece, northern Evros).
Mountainous (mountainous areas with an altitude of about >1500m in Northern Greece, 1800m in Central Greece and 2000m in Crete.

Temperatures are rarely excessive in coastal areas. The largest temperature ranges – both annual and daily – are observed in the closed interior plains and highlands of the country.

Snowfall is common in the mountains from the end of September (in northern Greece, end of October on average in the rest of the country), while in the lowlands it snows mainly from December to mid-March. It has snowed, however, even in the month of May in Florina.

In the coastal areas of the island regions, snowfall occurs less frequently and is not a key feature of the climate. Heatwaves mainly affect lowland areas and are more frequent in July and August. They rarely, however, last more than 3 days.

Greece is located between the 34th and 42nd parallels of the northern hemisphere and has a lot of sunshine almost all year round. In more detail, a wide variety of climate types is presented in the various regions of Greece, always of course within the framework of the Mediterranean climate.

This is due to the topographic configuration of the country which has large differences in altitude (there are large mountain ranges along the central country and other mountain masses) and alternating land and sea. Thus, from the dry climate of Attica and eastern Greece in general, we pass to the wet of northern and western Greece.
Such climatic differences are found even in places that are at a short distance from each other, which occurs in only a few countries around the world.

From a climatological point of view, the year can be divided mainly into two seasons: The cold and rainy winter season, which lasts from mid-October to the end of March, and the warm and rainless season, which lasts from April to October.

During the first period the coldest months are January and February, where on average the average minimum temperature ranges from 5-10 °C in coastal areas, from 0-5 °C in inland areas and lower values ​​below zero in the northern regions.[46]

The rains even in the winter season do not last for too many days and the sky in Greece does not remain cloudy throughout the winter, as is the case in other parts of the world. The winter bad weather is sometimes interrupted during January and the first fortnight of February by sunny days, the Alcyonides days known since antiquity. During this period, therefore, on the islands, mainly in the southern part of the country, as for example in Crete, the temperature can exceed 18-20 degrees Celsius, in Attica 13-14 °C and in Thessaloniki the mercury can exceed 9°C and many times even 10°C. In other cities, as for example in Alexandroupoli during the Alkyonide days, the temperature exceeds 7-8 °C, as a result of which the snow from the winter snowfalls melts during the day.

The winter season is milder in the Aegean and Ionian islands than in Northern and Eastern mainland Greece. During the warm and rainless season, the weather is stable, the sky is almost clear, the sun is bright and it does not rain except for rare intervals with rapid rains or storms of generally short duration.

The hottest period is the last ten days of July and the first of August, when the average maximum temperature ranges from 30 °C to 35 °C.[46] During the warm season the high temperatures are moderated by the cool sea breeze in the coastal areas of the country and by the northerly winds (annual) that blow mainly in the Aegean.

Spring has a short duration, because winter is late and summer begins early. Autumn is long and warm and often extends in southern Greece and the islands until mid-December.

In Athens, the capital, the cold is usually felt from November onwards and from there onwards it continues until the end of March. After mid-December, a particular cold develops in the urban areas, which continues until the end of February. From the beginning of March, spring is felt and the temperature rises gradually.

After World War II, the effort to unite Europe began. Greece is one of the countries that played a leading role in these developments. In 1981, Greece became the 10th member of the EU. Since the end of the military dictatorship in 1974, concerted efforts have been made to strengthen democratic institutions and to cultivate the state’s international relations. Despite their individual differences, all governments after 1974 have worked to modernize and improve the quality of life of Greek citizens. Thus, the standard of living of the Greeks improved dramatically.

Facts about the Republic of Greece

OFFICIAL NAME: Hellenic Republic
LOCATION: South East Europe
AREA: 131,957
POPULATION : 10,349,848 (2021)
DENSITY: 79.9 cat. per
LIFE EXPECTANCY 81.94 years (2019)
STATE: Presiding parliamentary democracy
NATIONAL COMPOSITION: Greeks 99%, Gypsies, Albanians and others 1%
RELIGION: Greek Orthodox Christians 99%, Roman Catholics, Jews, etc.
NATIONAL HOLIDAYS: March 25 (anniversary of the revolution of 1821), October 28 (anniversary of “NO”)
INFLATION 4.8% 2021

Electricity: 91,24% hydro, 8,26% fossil fuel, 0,5% other
Ports and harbors: Alexandroupolis, Eleusis, Irakleion, Kavala, Kerkyra (Corfu), Chalkis, Igoumenitsa, Lavrion, Patras, Pireus, Thessaloniki, Volos

International organizations: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 6, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG,

Trade partners: Germany, Italy, UK, France, Netherlands, US.

Facts about the Greek Armed Forces

In 2010, Greece spent 3.98% of its GDP on defense – a figure that was then the second highest in the world.[78] The Greek Armed Forces consist of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.

Compulsory military service in Greece concerns Greek male citizens and has a duration of 9 months, which is however usually limited by a decision of the Minister of National Defence.
Thus, until 2009, Greece had a mandatory 1-year conscription for all men over the age of 18. Although applications are accepted from women who want to serve, their conscription is not compulsory.

This move creates objections from circles opposed to compulsory military service, because while Article 4 of the Greek Constitution obligates all Greek citizens to defend Greece, the burden rests entirely on the male population. In February 2009 the Minister of National Defense announced that from 2010 conscripts would only be enlisted in the Army and for a 9-month term, meaning that the Navy and Air Force would be manned exclusively by professional conscripts.

Finally, from August 14, 2009, the term became 9 months, while corresponding reductions were made in the enlistment time of those serving a reduced term. Also, there is a plan to fully staff the Navy and the Air Force by professionals until 2012. Finally, the alternative term became 18 months.

The Greek military personnel totals 364,050 people, of which 142,700 are active and 221,350 are reserves. Greece ranks 28th worldwide in terms of the number of citizens serving in the armed forces. The term of service in Greece lasts nine months for the Army and one year for the Navy and the Air Force.[44] In addition, Greek men aged 18 to 60 living in strategically sensitive areas may be required to serve part-time in the National Guard.

As a member of NATO, the Greek military participates in exercises and missions under the auspices of the alliance, although its involvement in NATO missions is minimal.

Greece spends over $7 billion a year on its military, 2.3% of Greek GDP. It is the 24th highest military spender in the world in absolute terms, the seventh highest spender per capita and the second highest in NATO after the United States. In addition, Greece is one of only five NATO countries that meets or exceeds the NATO target of each country spending at least 2% of its GDP on military purposes.

Military branches: Hellenic Army, Hellenic Navy, Hellenic Air Force

Facts about the foreign policy and international relations of Greece

Greece’s foreign policy is conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its head, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who is currently (January 2022) Nikos Dendias.

Officially, the main objectives of the Ministry are to represent Greece before other states and international organizations, to safeguard the interests of the Greek state and its citizens abroad, to promote Greek culture, to encourage closer relations with the Greek diaspora and to encourage of international cooperation.

Following the resolution of the Macedonian issue with the Prespa Agreement in 2018, the Ministry identifies two remaining issues of particular importance for the Greek state: the Turkish disputes over Greek sovereignty in the Aegean and the corresponding airspace and the Cyprus issue concerning the Turkish occupation of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

There is a long-standing conflict between Turkey and Greece over natural resources in the eastern Mediterranean. Turkey does not legally recognize the continental shelf and exclusive economic zone around the Greek islands.[76]

Furthermore, due to its political and geographical proximity to Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa, Greece is a country of significant geostrategic importance, an advantage it has exploited to develop a regional policy to help promote peace and stability in the Balkans, the Mediterranean and the Middle East. This has given the country middle power status in world affairs

What are the living conditions in Greece?

Living Conditions in Greece aims to present the most recent and important statistics, outlining living conditions in Greece in a clear, documented and comprehensive manner.

The Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT) with the publication Living Conditions in Greece provides users with important data that statistically reflect the living conditions in Greece and in fact gathered in one publication.

The publication contains data on a wide range of factors (work, health, education, technology, etc.) that affect living conditions, as well as data on quality of life, such as poverty and social exclusion.

The statistical time series contained in the publication are compiled, mainly, by ELSTAT. However, comparative tables with the other countries of the European Union with selected social indicators are also presented.

Greece has the largest merchant fleet in the world

Greece has twice the value of its fleet from Japan, China and the USA that follow. Greece is the second largest bulk carrier behind Japan and the fifth largest behind China, Germany, Japan and Denmark in terms of container vessels.

Greek shipping accounts for 53% of the European Union fleet and almost 21% of the global fleet in dwt, according to the annual report of the Hellenic Shipowners’ Association.

Specifically, the Greek merchant fleet is the largest fleet in the world, with 4,936 ships (over 1,000 gt) with a capacity of 389.69 million tons (dwt)

Magnesium exports of Greece, covers 46% of the total production of Western Europe.

Greece is the first in Europe in the production of aluminum, for thousands of applications.

Greece is the largest bauxite-producing country in the European Union.

Greece is the main producer of cotton in the European Union. Of the total 300,000 hectares cultivated in Europe, Greece cultivates 80% of the total area.

Greece is one of the largest countries producing saffron or “red gold” as it is otherwise called, with a sale price that can exceed 2,000 euros per kilo

Greece ranks third in world olive oil production with 320 thousand tons per year

Facts about exports of Greece

Fish and shellfish

The value of Greek fish exports in 2017 amounted to 660 million euros, accounting for 0.63% of world exports. Italy is the main destination of Greek fish, with 38.49% of exports ending there. The countries of Northern Europe and the Iberian Peninsula are Greece’s main competitors in fish.

Fruits and fruits

The value of exports of fruits and nuts amounted to 848 million euros. Greece is an economy that traditionally relies on the primary production sector and, therefore, in this category there are many products that have good export performance.
They account for 0.80% of world exports.The main destinations of Greek exports are Germany, Romania, Italy, the United Kingdom and Bulgaria. The most important competitors are the Netherlands, Belgium and Spain.

Plant resins and plant extracts

They hold 0.22% of world exports, worth 13 million euros The main destinations of the exports are the USA, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Germany and Turkey.

Animal and vegetable fats and oils

The value of exports for fats and oils was 594 million euros and covers 0.68% of world exports.
It is one of the most competitive categories for Greece.The main destination is Italy, with a big difference from the rest.

Facts about the Greek Tourism

The most touristic places in Greece are:

Parthenon Acropolis, Meteora, Oracle of Delphi, Ancient Olympia Gorge of Samaria, Byzantine Mystras in Peloponnese, Mykonos, Santorini, Rhodes

Travel Restrictions for Greece Covid 19

The total lifting of the measures for the coronavirus in Greece is expected in March, as the tourist season starts on March 1st.

The government’s goal is to restore normalcy in all areas and it is expected  that in early March no restrictions will apply, with the sole exception of the use of a mask.

It is thought advisable to read all travel restrictions set by the Greek ministry of health for travelers before you travel to Greece.