The Greek war for Independence in 1821
No doubt the Greeks had wanted their freedom from the very beginning
of the Ottoman rule, but in the 18th century the idea of a free Greece
grew into an organized plan. With Russian help a revolt started in 1770,
Inspired by the French revolution and the heroic poems (thourios) of
Rigas Feraios, the Greeks did not give up, and the
secret society Philiki Eteria ("Friendly Union") was founded in 1814
in Odessa of Russia by Nikolaos Skoufas, Emmanuel Xanthos and Antonios
Weapons and funds were collected, and help was sent from Greeks in exile
as well as other countries on the Balkan and the Mediterranean sea.
The revolution started when Alexander Ypsilantis invaded Jassy and
declared Greece a free country. In the Peloponnese the Archbishop of
Patras Paleon Patron Germanos lead the uprising in 23 of March 1821.
The Greek army of the Peloponesse was lead by Theodoros Kolokotronis. Other
famous Greek leaders of the revoloution where Georgios Karaiskakis, Athanassios
Diakos, Odysseas Androutsos, Grigorios Dikaios or Papaflessas, while in the
seas, Konstantinos Kanaris, Laskarina bouboulina and Andreas Miaoulis fight the
Turkish fleat with their ships.
The Greeks may have gotten certain aid from abroad, but they had to
fight on their own. The Turks got help from Egypt and the whole of the
Peloponnese was captured by the Egyptian army by 1826.
The year after a republic was proclaimed, and Ioannis Kapodistrias was declared
as the first governor of Greece. The same year European countries
decided to help Greece and after failed negotiations with Turkey,
Britain, France and Russia sent naval forces to Greece. Turkey was
forced to accept peace, and the so called London Protocol declared the
independence of Greece in 1830.
Many parts of Greece were soon given back to the Ottoman empire, though,
and several parts of Greece were not free until the beginning of the