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Greek history timeline

Ancient Paleolithic Age

The historian Obermeier mentions the presence of a tool that is not preserved today and which was discovered in Macedonia. However, the recent discovery by French geologists in the area of Lake Corissia in Corfu of a pebble-possibly- tool, whose age was determined by the method of paleomagnetism between 950,000 and 750,000 years, greatly extends the hitherto known boundaries of prehistory. of the Greek space.

Middle Paleolithic Age

100000 BC A stone handcuff is dated, which was found at the “Paleokastro” site near Siatista, Kozani, in 1963. It is made of greenish stone and has a length of 15.3 cm and a width of 10 cm (Veria Museum). This ax is the oldest -confirmed- creation of man that has been found to date in Greece (some scientists date it to the Ancient Paleolithic Period).

The earliest find of anthropological interest dates back to 75000 BC. and is a skull without a lower jaw, probably of a woman about 25 years old, a Neanderthal type that was discovered on 16/9/1960 in the cave “Red Stones” near the village of Petralona in Halkidiki.

44330 BC (Approximately 1,590 years). In the cave “Theopetra” in Kalambaka of the prefecture of Trikala, four fingerprints of human feet were found – the one covered and the rest of the gymnasiums – of different people, and even children (Homo sapiens neaderthalensis or Homo sapiens sapiens). This cave, measuring 24×30 meters, is the only prehistoric site in Greece where there is a sequence of embankments from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic and Neolithic. Among the findings stand out tools, ceramics, pottery, figurines, bidding banks, and especially a gold ring-shaped triptych of the Neolithic Age.

37900 BC In the place “Asprochaliko” of Epirus, near Agios Georgios of Preveza and in the place “Kokkinopilos”, many tools were discovered in a cave. The cave was used by shepherds and the radio dating gives us the oldest date of a cultural phase that we know until today for Greece. The cave was inhabited at least until 10,000 BC.

Newer Paleolithic Age

During this period, an advanced technique for making blades and processing silicon cores appeared. A place of great interest and at this stage is the (33000 BC) site “Kokkinopilos” of the river Louros (Epirus) which presents a very early stonework of special blades (800 tools and scraps). The transitional Mesolithic Age is represented by the “Sidari” site in Corfu.

7592 BC Absolute radio dating of a male skeleton who was about 25 years old, was 1.58 meters tall and died of a blow to the head. He was found buried in a shallow pit in the Franghthi cave of Ermionida. The oldest complete human skeleton discovered in the Aegean. The cave also found many tools and bones of animals, mainly deer and fish, as well as relics belonging to short men and women with widespread anemia and arthritic deformities.

Neolithic era

The need for food adequacy and stockpiling was intense at the end of the Pleistocene. The climate change that occurred then resulted in the extinction of many large prey. However, although this climate change is general, the Neolithic Age first appears in the East. This lead is attributed to: a. In the wild state of bifurcated wheat and barley. b. In the existence of animals that could easily be domesticated, such as sheep, pig and ox. The main features of this period are the cultivation of the land, the domestication of animals and permanent residence. In Greece, this cultural phase is spread through ordinary communication rather than through settlements.

6900-6600 / 6400 BC Pre-ceramic Neolithic. This period is not yet known for sure in Greece. Remains of Neolithic settlements of this period are found in Argissa and Sesklo in Thessaly. The houses are wooden, with trenches and dug floors. The tools are wooden with gunpowder or obsidian blades. People are engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry and fishing. Shipping is being developed as evidenced by the obsidian fragments found in Milos and in several areas of mainland Greece and the Aegean.

6600 / 6400-5900 / 5800 BC Ancient Neolithic is a creative period, known from many settlements, such as Nea Nikomidia in western Macedonia, Sesklo, Argissa, Otzaki Magoula, Achilleio and others. in Thessaly, Nea Makri in Attica and Corinth, Lerna and Franghthi in the Peloponnese. The settlements look like small villages, while agriculture and animal husbandry are the main activities of the inhabitants. The most characteristic element of this period is the pottery that appears for the first time.

6218 BC (about). The oldest pottery specimens have been found in Greece, in the area of Nea Nikomidia -the oldest Neolithic settlement in Greece-, between the rivers Aliakmonas and Axios of Macedonia (radio dating with carbon 14).

5900 / 5800-4800 BC The Middle Neolithic Period is considered a time of prosperity and growth. The largest center developed in Thessaly is Sesklo, whose “culture” extends as far as Sperchios in the south and Aliakmonas in the north. In Sesklo, the remains of a settlement of about 100 acres have been found, based on a single layout plan, the main feature of which is the narrow streets with parallel directions. The houses are four-sided and rectangular, one or two rooms. In the extreme part of the settlement there is the fortified citadel and a megaroid house, probably the residence of the ruler. Sesklo’s pottery is written in flamboyant or linear decoration. In the Peloponnese, Lerna and Franghthi, there is plenty of pottery with glossy varnish (Urfirnis). In Nea Nikomidia the houses are spacious with clay walls and a square floor plan. The end of the Middle Neolithic is marked by desolation and abandonment.

4800-3200 BC The New Neolithic or Chalcolithic Period from its first phases has nothing to do with the culture of Sesklo. The new feature is the introduction of black or generally dark color in the decoration of the pots. In Macedonia, in the region of Drama (Sitagroi, Dikili Tas), in Thessaly in the place “Dimini” and in the place “Rachmani” but but also in the Cyclades in the place “Saliaggos” meet the most important centers of culture of this phase. In Dimini, the relatively small settlement -30 acres- has six consecutive orchards and a spacious central courtyard. Spiral and meandering motifs appear in ceramics. In Sesklo, the female figure with an infant is presented for the first time.

The Bronze Age in Greece

4000 BC-1200 BC
The first civilizations From 4000 to 2000 BC. Culture in Greece continues its upward course. Living spaces are fortified, arts are developed and commercial exchanges are expanded. The Early Helladic, Cycladic and Minoan civilizations continue.

2000-1200 BC
Iktites and Assyrians. From 2000 – 1520 BC. we have the heyday of the Minoan civilization. The palaces are built in Crete and the hieroglyphic writing appears. The art is dominated by the Kamaraic style and the ceramic wheel appears. In 1600 BC. “Linear AD” is displayed. From 1520 – 1200 BC. the Minoan centers are destroyed and the Mycenaean civilization dominates. The Achaeans occupy Crete. “Linear DW” is displayed.

1200-700 BC
Iron and the alphabet In 1200 BC. The descent of the Dorians in Greece takes place and the first Greek colonization begins. During these years the Trojan War took place. Mycenaean civilization declines and the use of iron begins in Greece. Athens becomes the center of the arts, while Argos dominates the Peloponnese. After 800 BC. The ancient Greek religion was formed and the second Greek colonization began. The Messinian war broke out and then the Lilantian war.

700-300 BC
The birth of philosophy The currency is introduced in Greece, while the Greeks penetrate in Egypt. The first written laws are published in Athens and Sparta. The Athenian alliance is created and the “golden age” of Athens begins. The Peloponnesian War broke out, the hegemony of Athens was overthrown and the Spartan hegemony began. The Boeotian War broke out and then the Third Holy War. The Macedonian king Philip II intervenes and imposes the Macedonian sovereignty. Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian state.


Archaic Period

300 BC-100 AD
The conquests of Rome The Aetolian and Achaean confederations are formed. Macedonian wars break out and Greece submits to the Romans. There is a strong chromaticism in the arts, but not in the institutions. The Apostle Paul preaches Christianity in Greece. 100-400 The beginnings of Christianity At the beginning of this period we have many raids in Greece, where anarchy prevails. The Roman Empire declines and the persecution of Christians by Decius breaks out. Constantine became emperor and the period of the Byzantine Empire began. There are two ecumenical councils: the first in Nicaea and the second in Constantinople. The Olympic Games are abolished and the Goths invade Greece.

400-700 AD
The new Roman-Barbarian kingdoms. A university is established in Constantinople and the third ecumenical council of Ephesus and the fourth ecumenical council of Chalcedon take place. It becomes the first schism of eastern and western church. During the reign of Justinian, the “Attitude of Nika” is manifested and the Hagia Sophia is inaugurated. The ecumenical council is taking place in Istanbul. The Persians occupy Jerusalem and take the Holy Cross. Heraklion defeats them and takes him back. The Ecumenical Council takes place in Constantinople.

700-1000 AD
The spread of Islam The first phase of the iconoclasm begins and Leo III issues a decree against the icons. With the seventh ecumenical council, this phase ends with a decree in favor of the images. The second phase begins after the Istanbul meeting of 815. A new meeting in 843 ends the iconoclasm and restores the images. The Byzantine Empire clashed for a number of years with the Bulgarians, who were defeated by Basil II the Bulgarian killer.

1000-1250 AD
The Crusades The Bulgarians are defeated and subdued. It is founded in Istanbul Law School. There is a schism between the east and the west church. Byzantium loses Italy. The first crusade begins and Jerusalem is conquered. The Normans attack and plunder Greece. It is the second crusade that failed. During the Third Crusade, Richard I of England occupied Cyprus. Alexios III incites the Second Crusade. The Latins occupy Constantinople and the Latin Empire is founded.

1250-1400 AD
The Mongols conquer Asia The Palaeologan dynasty dominates and takes care of the revival of Hellenism. During this period we have uprisings in Central Asia and the gradual domination of new conquerors in parts of Greece. Byzantium is shaken by the “Hesychastic disputes” and the revolution of the “Zealots” takes place. The Turks began to occupy parts of the Byzantine Empire.

1400-1500 AD
Typography and geographical discoveries. Byzantium recaptured Thessaloniki, while at the same time in the Ottoman state there was a decline. Then the Turks unsuccessfully besieged Istanbul. However, they occupy Thessaloniki and Ioannina. On May 29, 1453, they occupied the city and overthrew the Byzantine Empire. Then they occupy the Peloponnese, Lesvos and Samos. Peace is signed between Venetians and Turks. Cyprus is occupied by the Venetians and Nafpaktos is conquered by the Turks.

1500-1600 AD
The Reform During this period we have an escalation of robbery in Greece, while the people of Epirus revolt dissatisfied with the child mass. The Venetians occupy the Ionian Islands and the Turks the Dodecanese. The Turks also besiege Cyprus, which they occupy. But the Europeans defeated them in the naval battle of Nafpaktos. Then new uprisings take place in Macedonia, Sterea, Peloponnese and the Aegean islands. But these movements fail.

1600-1660 AD
Galileo and the new science During this period the church undertakes the enlightenment of the Greeks who try to survive organized in communities. The country is plagued by Tuscan, Neapolitan and Maltese raids, while a revolutionary orgasm prevails. During this period, the child mass is abolished.

1660-1720 AD
The era of Louis XIV During this period, efforts were made to establish schools with the aim not only of spreading the letters but also of cultivating a national consciousness. Crete is occupied by the Turks. The Peloponnese and some Aegean islands pass for a short time in the hands of the Venetians. The Parthenon is destroyed by the bombing of Morosini.

1720-1760 AD
Logic and Enlightenment The establishment of schools and the spread of the modern Greek Enlightenment continues with the main actors the Phanariotes, the Church and the merchants. The Greeks, preparing for revolution, are frustrated by the West and look forward to homodox Russia.

1760-1800 AD
French and American Revolution The Greeks awoke spiritually and began to organize, while at the same time the revolutionary movements multiplied. Russo-Turkish war breaks out and the Greeks revolt. The Küçük-Kainartz συν Treaty is signed between Russia and Turkey. The Ionian state is founded. Revolutionary leaflets and the “Charter” of Rigas Feraios are circulating.

greek revoloution

1800-1825 AD
The birth of industrial power Local uprisings abound in Greece, as revolutionary leaflets circulate everywhere. Hellenism is preparing for the great moment of the revolution. The Friendly Society is founded in Odessa, while the English occupy the Ionian islands. On March 25, 1821, the Greek Revolution broke out in the Peloponnese. Almost a year later, the Constitution of Epidaurus is voted.

1825-1850 AD

The revolution spread throughout Greece, while the Turks were supported by the Egyptians. The Turkish fleet is defeated in the naval battle of Navarino. The Third National Assembly elects I. Kapodistrias as Governor. The Treaty of London designates Otto as king, while the Treaty of Constantinople defines the country’s new borders. The first university is founded, while a revolution breaks out in Crete. Political life is intense and a new conservative constitution is being passed.

1850-1875 AD
Greece is entering a phase of economic development. Otto is dethroned and a new king is appointed, the Danish prince George A. A new constitution is adopted which establishes the reigning democracy as a state. This period can be characterized as a period of political instability.

1875-1900 AD
The age of imperialism The “principle of the declared” is established. Great Britain acquires the administration of Cyprus. Turkey cedes to Greece Thessaly and the region of Arta. During this period the opening of the isthmus of Corinth begins. Many public works are carried out and the armed forces are being reorganized. In 1896 the Olympic Games are revived. Crete, finally, acquires an autonomous status.

1900-1925 AD
Europe at war During this period we have changes of governments, with the final predominance of the policy of El. Venizelou. The two Balkan Wars and the First World War take place. Greater Greece of the two continents and the five seas is created. But the Greeks are defeated and we have the Asia Minor Catastrophe. In 1924 we have the First Hellenic Republic.

1925-1950 AD
The crisis and the economic recovery This period is characterized by political instability. Dominant events are the Second World War, the civil war and at the end of the period the integration of the Dodecanese in Greece.

1950-1970 AD
The Cold War At this time the Zurich Agreement was signed, with which Cyprus became an independent democracy within the framework of the British Commonwealth. Political unrest erupts in Greece with the coup d’etat of the colonels in 1967-1974.